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RADIOLOGY TERMINOLOGY

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targeted cryoablation therapy - See cryosurgery. -

technetium -99m - A radiotracer commonly used in nuclear medicine for many different types of examination. It decays within 24 hours, leaving no residual radiation.

technologist - (tek-nol-a-jist) - One trained in and using the techniques of a profession, art, or science. -

temporary brachytherapy - A radiation therapy treatment for cancer in which radioactive material sealed inside a seed or pellet is placed inside the body in or near a tumor for a specified amount of time and then withdrawn. This treatment can be administered at a low dose rate (LDR) or high dose rate (HDR). -

testes (plural of testis) - See testis. -

testicle - See testis. -

testicular torsion - The twisting of the spermatic cord that contains the vessels that supply blood to the scrotum. -

testis (testes plural) - One of the two male reproductive glands that produce spermatozoa (sperm) and male hormones (testosterone). The testes are located behind the penis in the scrotum. -

the amount of radiant energy absorbed in a certain amount of tissue. , rem or roentgen -equivalent-man

the cavity that exists around the lungs and underneath the chest wall. - -

the international unit of exposure dose for x -rays or gamma rays. Roentgens are named after Professor Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, the man who discovered x-rays in 1895. , sievert (Sv) (see-vert)

therapeutic radiology - A medical specialty and the study of radiation treatment of abnormal tissue (nonmalignant or cancerous) through the use of x-rays or radionuclides.

therapist - (thar-a-pist) - One professionally trained and/or skilled in the practice of a particular type of therapy.

thoracic - Refers to the chest or ribs region of the spinal column, which includes twelve bones, or vertebrae labeled T-1 through T-12

three -Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT) - This type of external beam radiation therapy combines multiple radiation treatment fields to deliver precise doses of radiation to the affected area. Tailoring each of the radiation beams to focus on the tumor delivers a high dose of radiation to the tumor and avoids nearby healthy tissue.

thrombolysis - See catheter-directed thrombolysis.

thrombolytic agent - One of a group of medications used to dissolve clots within the blood vessels of the body. -

thrombophlebitis - Inflamation of a vein that results when a blood clot, a thickened mass of blood, forms along the wall of a blood vessel. -

thrombosis - A blood clot or thrombus that forms in a blood vessel or organ of the body, potentially blocking the flow of blood. -

thyroid gland - (thI-rOYd) - One of nine endocrine glands in the body, located in front of the neck just below the Adam's apple. It is shaped like a butterfly, with two lobes on either side of the neck connected by a narrow band of tissue. The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones that set the rate the body carries on its necessary functions (metabolic rate). Some of the functions controlled by thyroid hormones include heart rate, cholesterol level, body weight, energy level, muscle strength, skin condition and vision.

thyroid scan - A nuclear medicine examination that helps evaluate the structure of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism, a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body functions. -

thyroid uptake - Also known as radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU). -

tomography - (tO-mog-ru-fE) - Making a radiographic image of a selected plane by means of reciprocal linear or curved motion of the x-ray tube and film cassette; images of all other planes are blurred ("out of focus") by being relatively displaced on the film. -

total Body Irradiation - Delivering radiation to the entire body. In the case of lymphoma, it is often done before chemotherapy and a stem cell or bone marrow transplant. -

total Nodal Irradiation - Delivering radiation to all the lymph nodes in the body -

trachea - Also known as the windpipe, the tube that connects the lungs and mouth. -

transabdominal - Through or across the abdomen. -

transducer - (trans-dU-ser) - A handheld device that sends and receives ultrasound signals. -

transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) - A small, tubular metal device commonly called a stent or stentgraft that is placed in the middle of the liver to connect the hepatic vein and portal vein, creating a shunt between the systemic and portal venous system. The shunt is placed in an attempt to decrease portal pressure and sometimes used to treat recurrent ascites.

transplant - To transfer from one part to another, as in grafting and transplantation., The tissue or organ in grafting and transplantation. , -

transrectal - Passing through or performed by way of the rectum. -

transvaginal - (trans-vaji-nal) - Across or through the vagina (the genital canal in the female, extending from the uterus to the vulva). -

treatment Plan - A radiation oncologistís prescription describing how a patient should be treated with radiation therapy. The radiation oncology team uses special software to maximize radiation to the tumor while sparing healthy tissue and organs. -

treatment planning - Establishment of procedures to carry out effective radiation therapy with minimal risk to healthy tissue. See also simulation. -

trocar - A hollow needle with a sharply pointed end that is inserted into a blood vessel, body cavity or bone. Needles, tubes or other instruments are then inserted through the trocar be inserted to reach the treatment area. -

tuberculosis - A highly contagious infection transmitted through the air that attacks the lungs and other parts of the body. -

tumor - A growth of abnormal cells that are either malignant or benign. -

tumor ablation - The removal of a tumor. -

tunneled cathether - A special type of catheter used in a vascular access procedure that is inserted inside a major vein for a period of weeks, or months so that blood can be repeatedly drawn or medication and nutrients can be injected into the patientís bloodstream on regular basis. Unlike a standard intravenous catheter (IV) which is for short term use, a vascular access catheter is more durable and does not easily become blocked or infected. The tunneled catheter, which has a cuff at one end that stimulates tissue growth to help hold it in place, is used when access to the vein is needed for longer than three months and many times each day. This catheter is commonly used for patients requiring dialysis. -

turgidity - Veins that carry blood from throughout the body to the heart rely on a series of valves that work like gates to prevent blood from flowing backwards. When valves are not working properly, the normal flow of blood slows and creates pockets of backflow, called turgidity, where clots can develop. -

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